Dr. Francis Buchanan, a Scottsman working as a surgeon at the British East India Company, was the one and only person who mentioned the names ‘Rooingas’ and ‘Rossawns’ in his linguistic survey book. Those names can be the closest terms for the name ‘Rohingya’. However he described those people as both Hindus and Muslims and their languages are dialects of Hundustani. Furthermore, Francis Buchanan wrote very clearly that they are called Kala or Strangers or Foreigners or Aliens by the real natives of Arakan, i.e. Arakanese or Rakhaings (Francis Buchanan 1801).
I will cite Buchanan: “I shall now add three dialects, spoken in the Burman Empire, but evidently derived from the language of the Hindu nation. The first is that spoken by the Mohammedans, who have long settled in Arakan, and who call themselves Rooinga , or natives of Arakan. The second dialect is that spoken by the Hindus of Arakan. I procured it from a Brahmen and his attendants, who had been brought to Amarapura by the king’s eldest son, on his return from the conquest of Arakan. They call themselves Rossawn, and, for what reason I do not know, wanted to persuade me that theirs was the common language of Arakan. Both these tribes, by the real natives of Arakan, are called Kulaw Yakain, or stranger Arakan.”
I would like to give the following explanation why British Colonial Officers never recorded these so-called 'Rooingas and Rosswans' during the whole colonial era:
Dr. Franscis Buchanan wrote very clearly that he met those people in Amarapura (ie. the capital of the Burmese Empire then) and NOT in Arakan. They were taken to Burma as slaves or prisoners. All historical records and chronicles unanimously stated that the Burmese Crown Prince had taken about 30000 Arakanese, and some of their slaves as forced labours to Burma. It is very clear that Arakanese (Rakhaings) became slaves of Burmese and these Bengali slaves of the Arakanese (and also some Bengali settlers in Arakan) became automatically "the Slaves of the Slaves" under the Burmese. The population of these 'Slaves of the Slaves' (and maybe some Bengali settlers too) might be very few. Later, most probably these 'Slaves of the Slaves' and Bengali settlers in Arakan were assimilated and engulfed into the Muslims and Hindus living in Upper Burma, who were the subjects of the Burmese king. That's why these names disappeared when British annexed Upper Burma in 1885. Apart from that Dr. Buchanan stated very clearly that they were Strangers in Arakan and NOT Natives!
If these groups who called themselves as 'Rooingas' and 'Rossawns' were still in Arakan until 1826 or even after that, these names might have been mentioned by the British Colonial Officers in their administrative and research papers!
British officers in Bengal recorded that, after the downfall of the Arakanese kingdom many Arakanese, some Hindus and Muslims crossed the border and seeked asylum on British soil. They neither mentioned 'Rooingas' nor 'Rossawns'!
Even Buchanan wrote in his other book "Puran Bisungri was an officer of the Police Station of Ramoo what is called Panwah by the Arakanese. He was a Hindu, born in Arakan and fled the country after Burmese invasion of 1784”.
“Puran says that, in one day soon after the conquest of Arakan the Burmans put 40,000 men to Death: that wherever they found a pretty Woman, they took her after killing the husband; and the young Girls they took without any consideration of their parents, and thus deprived these poor people of the property, by which in Eastern India the aged most commonly support their infirmities. Puran seems to be terribly afraid, that the Government of Bengal will be forced to give up to the Burmans all the refugees from Arakan”.
Now about the third group mentioned by Dr. Buchanan: “The last dialect of the Hindustanee which I shall mention, is that of a people called, by the Burmans, Aykobat, many of them are slaves at Amarapura. By one of them I was informed, that they had called themselves Banga; that formerly they had kings of their own; but that, in his father’s time, their kingdom had been overturned by the king of Munnypura, who carried away a great part of the inhabitants to his residence. When that was taken last by the Burmas, which was about fifteen years ago, this man was one of the many captives who were brought to Ava.
He said also, that Banga was seven days’ journey south-west from Munnypura: it must, therefore, be on the frontiers of Bengal, and may, perhaps, be the country called in our maps Cashar.'
For that version the present author likes to give the following explanation:
Since Alaungphaya (Alaungphara) re-established the Burmese empire, he and his successors invaded and annexed almost all neighbouring kingdoms including Siam, Langxiam, Assam, Manipur, Mon and Rakhaing etc.etc..
It is very possible that a small dukedom north of Bengal was annexed into Manipur and some of the inhabitants were taken as slaves to Manipur. When Manipur became a feudatory state of the Burmese empire then, these slaves were either given as tribute to the Ava Empire or taken by the Burmese as slaves. However, it is not easy to trace a Burmese word which can be close to ‘Aykobat’ mentioned by Buchanan! The closest term could be “Akkabat”. During Bodaw Phaya's Era, a new minister post အကၠဗတ္ျမင္းဝန္ “Akkabat Myin Wun” (literal translation: “Minister of Akkabat Cavalry”) was created for his protégé Myat Htin, however, in fact he was the Chief of all Cavalries. Almost all of the soldiers in Akkabat Cavalry were Manipuris. Most probably, Dr. Buchanan meant Akkabat!! A subtribe of Manipuris were called “Kathei” or “Kasai” in Burmese, which most probably was the corruption of Cashar meant by Buchanan.
This group 'Aykobat' too were most probably assimilated and engulfed into the Manipuris, Katheis and Hindus living in Upper Burma, who were the subjects of the Burmese king.
Why did they name themselves 'Rooingas and Rossawns?
In Burma, there are two big ethnic communities of alien origin, namely of the Chinese and of the people from the Subcontinent (British India) who are named 'Tayoke' and 'Kala' respectively by the Burmese. In these two communities, though 'Tayoke' are assimilated into the Burmese and Buddhist community easier and faster, they are still happy and proud to be called 'Tayoke', rather than 'Bama', just to keep their own ethnic identity. However, 'Kala', regardless of their faith either Hindus or Muslims, are lesser assimilated into the Burmese and Buddhist community. Despite of that fact, they want to name themselves as 'Bama' or 'Mon' or 'Shan' or 'Karen' etc. etc. due to the area where they reside, rather than their own ethnic identity 'Kala'! It happens most probably because of the term 'Kala' which means black or dark in Indic languages like Hindi, Urdu, Bengali etc. etc.
In any case, the term 'Kala' do not have derogatory meaning in Burmese because the etymology of the word Kala (written Kula) can be traced back from the Pali word Kula meaning "noble race" (this is a short form of Kula Putta which means "son of the noble race"). The word was used for the Indians (People from the subcontinent) by the early Buddhist people of Burma (Mons, Burmese, Arakanese, Karens and Shans etc.) because Lord Buddha himself was an Indian.
Although the word Kala has a harmless meaning, the people from the subcontinent do not like to be called Kala. They feel insulted because, as mentioned earlier, the word Kala means "coloured" or "blackie" in their Indic languages such as Hindi, Urdu and Bengali. In particular, Indians, Pakistanis and Bangladeshis living in Burma often complain to foreigners, especially to non-Burmese Burma Scholars that they feel discriminated by the people of Burma, especially by the Bamas (the Burmese), the Rakhines (the Arakanese), Shan and the Mons, calling them Kala (meaning "blackie" in their own interpretation). Such a misinterpretation was never intended by the people of Burma (the Burmese, Mons, Karens, Shans and Arakanese/Rakhines etc.), in fact, on reflection some people from Northern India and Pakistan are much fairer in complexion than some people of Burma, especially some Mons, Burmese and Arakanese /Rakhaings!!
For the above-mentioned reason, almost all of the 'Kala' in Burma name themselves either 'Bama' or Karen or Shan or Mon etc. etc. regardless of whether they are assimilated into the native society or not!. In the light of this explanation, as a parallel case, it is very easy to conclude why those two groups met by Dr. Francis Buchanan named themselves 'Rooinga' and 'Rossawn' although they were called 'Kalaw Yakain' (Kala Yakain or Aliens in Rakhaing Land) by the real natives of Arakan (ie. Arakanese or Rakhaings). It is clear that these two groups interviewed by Buchanan too did not want to be named 'Kala' regardless of whether they were assimilated into the native society or not! Apart from that, when Dr. Buchanan interviewed them they had lived for more than 10 years in Amarapura and might have seen & noticed that their kins inside Burma, the subjects of Burmese kings who did not want to be called “Kala”, named themselves either “Burmese Muslims” or “Burmese Hindus”. Hence, it cannot be ruled out that these two groups of “Kala Yakhaing” from Arakan got an Idea from their kins from Burma and “invented” new names because it was recorded only by Buchanan while he was in Amarapura. However, their same kins in Arakan never introduced to anybody with the names 'Rooinga' and 'Rossawn'!!
In fact, in the Bengali language the country Arakan is called either 'Rohan' or 'Rosan'. and The real natives of that land, the Arakanese or the Rakhaings, are called 'Rohanja' or 'Rosawnga' due to the dialects. Most probably, Buchanan misheard as Rooinga and Rosssawn. As mentioned earlier, ‘Rohingya’ is a name used by the Bengalis to denote a Rakhaing/Rakhine – a Buddhist natives of Arakan or an Arakanese. In other words, 'Rohingya', Mogg and 'Magh' are the synonyms in Bengali language and it gives the meaning Arakanese or Rakhaingthar.
Most of the the Arakanese (Rakhaings) did not and do not know that they were and are called Rohanga/Rosanga/Rohaunga/Rosawnga and Mogs/ Maghs/ Moggs by the Bengalis. In the similar way, most of the Burmese do not know that they are called “Mien Tien” by the Chinese, “Bramah” by the Indians, “Phama” by the Thais and “Phumea” by the Cambodians.
I have to conclude, these two groups 'hijacked' or 'kidnapped' the name of the real natives of Arakan (Rakhaings) in Bengali language and bluffed Buchanan!!
Furthermore, even at Buchanan's time although the linguistic survey was not as advance as nowadays he wrote those people spoke the dialects of Hindu Nation (Hindustan). A modern linguist might have claimed them as one of the subdialects of Chittagonian Bengali.
Nowadays 'Rohingyarists' claim that their language is a separate language and not a dialect of Bengali because some words are not the same as in Bengali or Hindi etc, etc. which even Buchanan had pointed out.
If it were the case American English should also be considered as American Language because Americans too use different words from the British such as elevator for lift, truck for lorry, pants for trousers etc. etc.
In the similar way, Austrian should also be considered as a separate language and not the Austrian dialect of the German language. Examples are given in the following table:
Who invented the name 'Rohingya'?
In fact, Dr. Aye Chan was not wrong by saying that the term 'Rohingya' was "invented" by Mr. Abdul Gafar in August 1950. As a history professor he knew exactly about Buchanan's 'Rooingas and Rasswans'. Apart from Buchanan neither a historian nor a British colonial officer mentioned that name in their works. Then suddenly only in August 1950, Mr. Abdul Gafar started using the similar name "Rohingya" by 'hijacking' or 'kidnapping' the name of the real natives of Arakan (Rakhaings) in Bengali language!! Since the word is of Bengali origin, some of the Bengali Muslim secessionist groups such as Mujahid Rebels and some above-ground Bengali Muslims like Mr. Gafar got the golden opportunity by using this name to identify themselves to be the natives of Arakan and named themselves as ‘Rohingya’ in the 50's. Hence, I would like to say that Mr. Gafar made the dead name alive back again for their political purpose, like the way “Frankenstein” evolved. As the way Frankenstein troubed the natives of that village, the so-called Rohingyas were and are giving troubles to the natives, the Rakhaings, the Burmese and all natives of Burma.
Again going back to Francis Buchanan, he mentioned very clearly: "for what reason I do not know, wanted to persuade me that theirs was the common language of Arakan. Both these tribes, by the real natives of Arakan, are called Kulaw Yakain, or stranger Arakan.’ Here one can see clearly that Dr. Buchanan bluntly stated that those people were not the natives of Arakan which openly contradicts the claims of Mr. Gafar as well as 'Rohingyarists' nowadays who claimed to be the natives of Arakan for their political purpose!
The possible link or connection between Buchanan's 'Rooinga' and Abdul Gafar's 'Rohingya'
Now, I like to trace out the link between Buchanan’s ‘Rooinga’ and the people now called themselves ‘Rohingya’.
The veteran journalist Kyemon U Thaung with penname Aungbala stated that the name "Rohingya" was created by the Red Flag Communists for the "Mujahid Rebels" at the end of the 1940's while they were fighting together against U Nu's government. At that time, the "Mujahids" wanted to get a new name which had some connection with Arakanese History so that they could claim that they were the "Indigenous Muslims of Arakan", and the "Red Flag" Communists invented the name "Rohingya" for them. However, U Thaung admitted honestly that he did not know what the word means.
Mr. Amedur Rahman Farooq, cited Dr. Shwe Lu Maung in his article “The Curse of Historical Rivalries in Arakan State of Burma”: "The Rakhaing King was the patron of all religions and culture. Siddikh Khan Mosque was built by the Rakhaing King in 1430 AD. It is the first Mosque in all Burma. I suggest that UNESCO may please take due action to restore this oldest Myanmar Muslim heritage. ...(1) The Rohingya issue is a cultural and political issue. (2) The politicians recognize the Rohingyas. I am a disciple of Bogri Kra Hla Aung and Chairman Kyaw Zan Rhee. I worked with them in 1966-67. We have about fifty Muslim comrades with us in Bogri’s party. Both leaders told me that we have to give due rights and recognition to the Muslim Nationals. As their disciple I recognize and respect the Rohingyas. (3) Presidents U Shwe Tha, U Maung Sein Nyunt, U Padi Phru, U Kyaw Hlaing, Dr. Khin Maung, Bo- Mhu Htun Kyaw Oo, Red Comrade Oo Khin Maung, Khaing Ahnar Ni are the politicians and they all recognize the Rohingyas. I also met General Khaing Raza with Dr. Yunus at Dhaka in 1991. I would assume that General Khaing Raza also recognizes the Rohingyas. Same conclusion applies to Commander Saw Tun who was killed along with General Raza."
The above mentioned paragraph had proven100% that the ‘Red Flag Communist’ and ‘Mujahid Rebels’ were the allies. The late Kyemon U Thaung (Aungbala) was correct by saying that the name ‘Rohingya’ was “invented” by the ‘Red Flag Communists in the late 40's. The late Red Flag Communist Leader Thakin Soe read a lot of books and he might have come across Buchannan’s version of ‘Rooinga’. The then Red Flag Communist Leader in Arakan, Kyaw Zan Rhee (also mentioned by Shwe Lu Maung), was an Arakanese (Rakhaing). So they might have “created” the term 'Rohingya' (meaning natives of Arakan in Bengali language) for their Bengali comrades, as if these people had something to do with the history Arakan.
Later, Mr. Abdul Gafar started using that name in Guardian Magazine by 'kidnapping' the name of the real natives of Arakan (Rakhaings) in Bengali language!! Mr. Abdul Gafar 'invented' the 'Rohingya History' too by naming themselves “Sudeten Muslims of Burma” and comparing them with Sudeten Germans without checking the back-ground history of Sudeten Germans properly.
As conclusion I would like to say that since the political term 'Rohingya' is of Bengali origin Rakhaings, Burmese and all natives of Burma had neither heard nor used that term . Not only the people of Burma but also the British colonial rulers who put Burma into the British Raj never recorded that term. Nor that term can be found in the etymology books and records written by Portuguese, Dutch, French, Spanish, Italian, British and even by Indians!!
Apart from that, those 'Rooingas' & 'Rossawns' tried to persuade a Scotsman Dr. Francis Buchanan with the wrong and lying history, but they failed. In the same way, the so-called 'Rohingyas' nowadays persuaded the whole world with a fake history but this time they succeeded up to ther certain extant!
The different is: Those people who persuaded Dr. Buchanan were the "Slaves of the Slaves" and they had no money. Apart from that, Dr. Buchanan was a scholar. The people persuaded the NGOs like Burma Campaign UK etc. etc. nowadays have enough money getting from rich Muslim countries for Islamization of non-Islamic countries. They don't need to find a scholar, instead they can cheaply buy some lobbyists and propagandists to write in media, internet and to create websites for them. That's why their propaganda can be more effective this time and it really becomes the “National Danger” for Burma as predicted by the veteran politician Bonpauk Tha Kyaw in 1990.
 Buchanan, Francis, A comparative vocabulary of some of the languages spoken in the Burmese Empire. In: Asiatick Researchers or Transactions of the Society instituted in Bengal for inquiring into the History and Antiquities, the Arts, Sciences and Literature of Asia. V: 219-240, 1801.
 I used the term Arakanese only for the largest ethnic group in Arakan and who are the real natives of
Arakan, the Rakhaings or tthe Rakhines. The Arakanese (Rakhaings/Rakhines) are Buddhists.
 In this essay I took the liberty to use the word "Burma" instead of "Myanmar" for the country, the
Burmese/Burman for the Bamas, the biggest ethnic group, and "Burmese" for the language though Myanma is the real and correct words in the native language.
 Buchanan, Francis. Francis Buchanan in Southeast Bengal (1798): His Journey to Chittagong, the Chittagong Hill Tracts, Noakhali and Comilla. Dhaka: Dhaka University Press., 1992
 Sudeten Germans, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
In elections held on 4 December 1938, 97.32% of the adult population in Sudetenland voted for the NSDAP (most of the rest were Czechs who were allowed to vote as well). About half a million Sudeten Germans joined the Nazi Party, which amounted to 17.34% of the German population in the Sudetenland (the average in Nazi Germany was 7.85%). Because of their knowledge of the Czech language, many Sudeten Germans were employed in the administration of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia as well as in the Nazi oppressive machinery such as the Gestapo. The most notable was Karl Hermann Frank: the SS and Police general and Secretary of State in the Protectorate.
During World War II, German men in Slovakia usually served in the Slovak army, but more than 7,000 were members of paramilitary squads (Freiwillige Schutzstaffeln) and almost 2,000 volunteers joined the Waffen-SS. After the beginning of the Slovak National Uprising in late 1944, most of the young Germans in Slovakia were drafted in the German army, either with the Wehrmacht or Waffen-SS. The very young and elderly were organized in Heimatschutz, an equivalent of the Volkssturm in Germany. The Nazis ordered some of them to take action against the partisans; others participated in deportation of Slovak Jews. The Nazis evacuated about 120,000 Germans (mostly women and children) to the Sudetenland and Protectorate .
In the aftermath of WWII, when the Czechoslovak state was restored, the government expelled the majority
of ethnic Germans (about 3 million altogether), in the belief that their behavior had been a major cause of the
war and subsequent destruction.
The regular transfer of ethnic nationals among nations, authorized according the Potsdam Conference,
proceeded from 25 January 1946 till October 1946. An estimated 1.6 million "ethnic Germans" (most of them
also had Czech ancestors; and even Czechs, who spoke mainly German over the last years), were deported
 Bonpauk Tha Kyaw, "The Rohingyas; The Danger for the Union of Myanmar" (in Burmese), Sittwe, 15th Feb. 1990.
Bonpauk can be literally translated as ‘Drum skin breaker’. When U Tha Kyaw was a young boy, the famous
theatre troupe of ‘The Great’ U Po Sein came to their town. The young boy Tha Kyaw went to the theatre
troupe and asked U Po Sein whether he would be allowed to play the drums. U Po Sein loved children; so,
he asked the boy’s name only and gave him the permission. While Tha Kyaw was beating the drums one of
the drum skins was broken. U Po Sein was not angry but gave him the nick-name Bonpauk (Drum skin
breaker). From that time the boy was well-known as Bonpauk Tha Kyaw because there were and are many
Tha Kyaw in Arakan.